Horus and Jesus: Practically Twins! (well, not really….)

As I wrote in my last post, there are many different sources that claim a multitude of similarities between the Egyptian sky god Horus and Jesus of Nazareth. Does closer scrutiny bear out these claims? The devil, as they say, is in the details…

horus

Jesus? Is that you?

The similarities claimed to exist include ” born on December 25th. His mother was a virgin. His birth was announced by an angel, attended by shepherds and heralded by a star. At 30 years of age he was baptized in a river, and the one who baptized him was later beheaded. He had 12 disciples, performed miracles, exorcized demons, raised someone from the dead, and even walked on water.” According to which site you visit, there may be even more similarities listed. As I discussed in my last post, many other mythological figures have been credited with some of these same similarities, including Mithras, Krishna, Attis, Dionysis, and many others.

Now, as discussed in the last article, if in fact these similarities were to be accurate, that obviously does not preclude the existence of the historical figure, Jesus of Nazareth. In addition, one would actually expect to find at least some similarities when dealing with supernatural deific beings. For instance, one would expect a god to be able to supersede and rule over nature (i.e. perform miracles). A god would be able to rule over death. A god would be mentally superior to men, and seem to be all-knowing. A god who lived among men would draw men (disciples) to him. So we see that these types of similarities, if they existed, would be expected.

On the birthday claim: Nowhere in the Bible is Jesus’s birth date mentioned. The date was chosen by emperor Aurelian in the third century. In fact many believe, because of evidences offered in the Bible surrounding the account of Jesus’s birth, that he was not born in the winter time, but that’s a different subject. The point is, a claim of being born on December 25th (or at the winter solstice) simply seems to be suspiciously convenient, especially once the claims are more closely scrutinized.

When one looks more closely, at books and web sites that are dedicated to scholarship and not tearing down the Christian faith, a different picture emerges. For instance, the “Tour Egypt” website:

We offer scholarly articles on historical as well as contemporary issues and we are always looking to renovate our services to live up to the expectations of our millions of visitors.

Their account of Horus seems to be very different from the ones presented at those other websites that seem to have an agenda. There is no mention of any of those similarities I mentioned above. Indeed, when you read the article offered at the “Tour Egypt” web site, you would be hard pressed to find many similarities at all between the falcon deity Horus and Jesus of Nazareth.

In an effort to avoid the accusation of cherry-picking web sites that “agree with my agenda”, I will list two more sites that are more scholarly in nature and “agendaless”:

Encyclopedia Mythica: Horus

Ancient Egypt Online: Horus

It seems an honest look at the evidence would lead the unbiased observer to admit that there are not really that many similarities between the Egyptian sky god Horus and Jesus of Nazareth after all. Now, I will be the first to admit that I have not personally tracked down every single claim made about the supposed similarities that exist between Jesus and these other mythological figures. However, I have seen enough evidence on the few I have bothered to check, and read work by others who have done the “heavy lifting” and really run these claims to the ground, that these similarity claims are, to put it in a southern vernacular, hogwash. It almost seems as if these things have been made up purely to discredit the four independent eyewitness testimonies about the life of Jesus of Nazareth contained in the Bible as a case of mythological plagiarism. Surely no one would purposely just make stuff up just to do that though…. would they?

I’d love to discuss these things with you. Any questions and comments that are in line with this page’s Commenting Policy will be published and responded to (to the best of my ability).

For more information on how I keep my worldview informed please go to Cross Roads Church.

Colorado’s Marijuana Experiment: How’s That Working for You?

Every since Colorado and Washington (state) recently made the recreational use of marijuana legal, I have been keeping an eye out for the ramifications (if any) of these decisions. Admittedly I was skeptical at the time (and still am) of the wisdom of allowing this. From the limited returns of information I have seen so far, my skepticism has been justified, however I admit the jury is still out.

Marijuana-leaf_sized

How does such an ordinary looking plant cause so much strife?

I don’t follow this issue closely, but when I see articles about it I check them out as a matter of interest. The first article I noticed was a month or so ago, and I reported on it in one of my News Roundups. “Welfare Cash for Weed in Colorado.” This bothered me on a fundamental level, because I am vehemently opposed to being forced to pay for someone else’s recreational choices. Here’s an analogy. Let’s say I represent the government, and I am bigger and stronger than you, the regular citizen. I come up to you, take your wallet, and remove enough money for Bob to go to the movies, because he can’t afford to, and give that money to Bob. You are an avowed atheist, and Bob chooses to go see the movie God’s Not Dead, with what was formerly your money. Would this be okay with you? (Apparently it’s okay with some of the lawmakers in Colorado.)

Now there are more reports and studies coming out that we can use to see what impact the new laws in Colorado have upon the citizens of that state. Over at “The Daily Signal” there is a report that “Traffic Fatalities of Marijuana-Positive Drivers On Rise In Colorado.” Here are some of the findings, according to a peer-reviewed study, looking at Colorado highway fatalities since they legalized medical marijuana in 2009.

  • An increase in marijuana-related traffic fatalities in Colorado since 2009
  • An increase in marijuana-related traffic fatalities in Colorado compared to non-“medical marijuana” states since 2009
  • Alcohol-related fatalities remained the same

Related studies show that overall, highway fatalities have decreased in Colorado during that time, however, as you can see, fatalities related to marijuana usage have increased. Keep in mind, these results are only from a period between 2009-2011, after the state legalized medical marijuana. It will be interesting to see the results following the state’s legalization of recreational use in 2012. Here are the study’s results:

In Colorado, since mid-2009 when medical marijuana became commercially available and prevalent, the trend became positive in the proportion of drivers in a fatal motor vehicle crash who were marijuana-positive (change in trend, 2.16 (0.45), p<0.0001); in contrast, no significant changes were seen in NMMS [Non-medical marijuana states]. For both Colorado and NMMS, no significant changes were seen in the proportion of drivers in a fatal motor vehicle crash who were alcohol-impaired. [emphasis mine]

The Legalization of Marijuana in Colorado: The Impact” is a comprehensive study of the impact of marijuana usage in Colorado during a period of time before 2009 (early medical marijuana era), 2009 to present (medical marijuana expansion era) and 2012 to present (recreational marijuana era). Anyone interested in the subject should take a look at this study to see the trends in several different areas. One of the implications of this study is the rise of the usage of marijuana by under-aged teenagers. They report that:

In 2012, 10.47 percent of Colorado youth ages 12 to 17 were considered current marijuana users compared to 7.55 percent nationally. Colorado ranked fourth in the nation, and was 39 percent higher than the national average.

It seems to me that overall the trends aren’t looking good for the experiment of legalizing pot in Colorado. It may be that the citizens of that state will have to pay a heavy price for being “guinea pigs.” However, I am willing to admit that it is still early and additional data needs to be gathered before we have a better understanding of the implications. It seems to me however that according to the early trends, it ain’t lookin’ so hot.

I’d love to discuss these things with you. Any questions and comments that are in line with this page’s Commenting Policy will be published and responded to (to the best of my ability).

For more information on how I keep my worldview informed please go to Cross Roads Church.

H/T: Wintery Knight

More resources:

Marijuana: science, not hype, will clear the haze

Marijuana Is Harmful: Debunking 7 Myths Arguing It’s Fine

7 Harmful Side Effects Pot Legalization Has Caused in Colorado

Christians and Tattoos: Peanut Butter and Jelly, or Oil and Water? (Part Two)

In my first article on the subject, I looked at tattoos and the reasons to get (or not to get) them in a general sense. In this article I would like to drill down and talk specifically about Christians and tattoos.

oil-and-water1

Some things just don’t mix well…

It seems to me that there are two kinds of tattoos, broadly speaking, that a Christian might get. These would be, simply, those that are religious in nature, that a Christian might feel pertains to their faith, or those that fall outside this category. For those that would fall outside the religious category, please refer to my first article which speaks on the subject of getting tattoos in general. Then come back to find out about some ways Christians can think “Christianly” about the subject.

Historically speaking, religious tattoos have represented an outward and visible sign of a spiritual relationship with the object of worship. Many times the tattoos are meant as symbols of protection, to ward off evil spirits and the like, or to curry favor with a particular spirit or diety.

Of course, as Christians we understand that these things are not necessary. “The Lord knoweth them that are His” and we are “preserved in Jesus Christ” regardless of our possession of or lack of tattoos, religious in nature or not.

What do we say to the Christian who wants to get a religious tattoo? Since the Bible is our authority (as God’s word) that should be our first stop for information. What does the Bible have to say about tattoos? Relatively little, it turns out. Leviticus 19:28 says “Ye shall not make any cuttings in your flesh for the dead, nor print any marks upon you: I am the Lord.” There are other similar passages. Of course we know that this is a part of the Jewish Law, the Mosaic Covenant handed down by God to the people of Isreal. We understand that under the New Covenant we are not subject to that code of laws, in the sense that they were civilly enforced laws with legal ramifications if broken.

After all, today we eat shellfish and pork, which were both forbidden in the Mosaic Covenant. Does this give Christians the “green light” to get tattoos? Or should we try to look at the underlying principles behind the laws? In the same chapter, verse 14 tells us “Thou shalt not curse the deaf, nor put a stumblingblock before the blind, but shall fear thy God: I am the Lord.” Is it okay to make fun of deaf people when they can’t hear you, or to trip blind people for fun? (I hope to go into this in more depth in a future article, but for now I will leave these questions open-ended.)

Does the Bible ever advocate altering your body as a sign of your fidelity to God? In fact it does. Abraham, and later the Jewish nation, was commanded to be circumcised as a symbol of their covenant with God. However, we see specifically in the New Testament what this signified exactly, and why we are no longer required to participate in the act of physical circumcision as religious commandment. By comparison, the nature of circumcision (unlike tattoos, in general) should ensure that only the parents, the individual, and the individual’s wife would ever know the individual was circumcised under normal circumstances.

It seems that if God were going to allow tattoos, an excellent opportunity to do so would have been in Deutoronomy chapter six: “And these words, which I command thee this day, shall be in thine heart: And thou shalt teach them diligently unto thy children, and shalt talk of them when thou sittest in thine house, and when thou walkest by the way, and when thou liest down, and when thou risest up. And thou shalt bind them for a sign upon thine hand, and they shall be as frontlets between thine eyes. And thou shalt write them upon the posts of thy house, and on thy gates. (Deuteronomy 6:6-9)” However He does not. He tells us to post His commandments in prominent places, but he does not tell us to write them in our flesh.

In the New Testament, Christianity is taught as a change to the heart of an inward man, and not to the appearance. In the sermon on the mount, Jesus clearly teaches against making your offerings, prayer and fasting public events. We are also taught that we do not own our own bodies. “What? know ye not that your body is the temple of the Holy Ghost which is in you, which ye have of God, and ye are not your own? For ye are bought with a price: therefore glorify God in your body, and in your spirit, which are God’s. (1Co 6:19-20)” This also would seem to argue against Christians getting “religious” tattoos.

This principle was taught in the Old Testament as well. The whole purpose of the Mosaic Covenant was to separate Isreal as a peculiar people from the rest of the world, not by the way they looked, but by the way they acted. Some of the Biblical prophets were asked to behave in what might seem bizarre manners by God, but they weren’t asked to permanently alter their appearance. For instance, John the Baptist wore camel hair and ate insects. Ezekiel had to cook his food over dung. Elijah ate only food carried by ravens—nasty carrion birds. God has set us aside as a peculiar people: “For thou art an holy people unto the LORD thy God, and the LORD hath chosen thee to be a peculiar people unto himself, above all the nations that are upon the earth.” (Deu 14:2) and “But ye are a chosen generation, a royal priesthood, an holy nation, a peculiar people; that ye should shew forth the praises of him who hath called you out of darkness into his marvellous light: Which in time past were not a people, but are now the people of God: which had not obtained mercy, but now have obtained mercy.” (1Pe 2:9-10) Our peculiarity isn’t of ourselves, but is because we are chosen in God. It shouldn’t be manifest in our outward appearance, but in the way we follow God and his commandments.

If your purpose in getting a tattoo that is religious in nature is to draw the attention of others, what are you really communicating? In essence you are inviting others to look closely at your body in order to discern whatever message it is you are trying to convey. Is this how the Biblical saints carried out their faith? What is the Biblical precedent for this type of behavior? Are we, as Christians, supposed to call attention to ourselves, or are we supposed to point others to Christ? In addition, as we discussed in the previous article, whether right or wrong people judge others based on appearance. Is it possible to damage your Christian witness by getting tattoos? Even if there do not seem to be hard and fast answers to these questions, is it worth the risk to get tattoos?

Finally, how is it that you want to be perceived by your peers inside and outside the church? Do you want to be considered “cool” by them, or serious, thoughtful and virtuous? How will a tattoo help you to be perceived the way you want to be perceived?

To close, a note to those who may disagree with my tone, those who already have tattoos, and/or those who think I am displaying a “holier than thou” attitude. I am only trying to introduce ways of thinking about the matter, and especially trying to get straight in my own mind what I think about this particular subject, since it seems to be becoming more and more prevalent. My advice to any Christian seeking to get a tattoo is to search out these things in God’s word for yourself, and to seek counsel from those in the church whom you respect.

I have made many mistakes myself, and admittedly some more serious than getting a tattoo that I might regret getting later. The tattoo represents a physical mark on your skin that can be erased with personal monetary expense, but some of my mistakes have hurt others who I care about deeply, and imprinted my soul with indelible blots that I must continually remind myself can only be washed away by the blood of Jesus Christ.

I’d love to discuss these things with you. Any questions and comments that are in line with this page’s Commenting Policy will be published and responded to (to the best of my ability).

For more information on how I keep my worldview informed please go to Cross Roads Church.

This is a follow up post to Tattoos: Why? (Part One)

(09–7-14 edit) For further reading – Is Getting a Tattoo a Sin?

Tattoos: Why? (Part One)

“Getting inked.” “Tatted up.” In today’s culture it has become quite the “fashion statement” to get a tattoo, and in many cases more than one. Tattoo parlors are springing up seemingly on every corner. These days, all the cool kids are doing it. But, have all the people who have gotten tattoos thought seriously about it, both for the short-term and especially the long-term ramifications?

[I typically put a picture here, but I know better than to try and do an image search on this subject. What does that tell you?]

I will state upfront that I generally believe getting tattoos is not a wise decision. However, instead of trying to convey why I hold this belief, I will attempt to show by series of questions along differing lines of reasoning, and offering some thoughts on possible alternatives to tattoos, why this is the case.

The first question I would ask someone who came to me with thoughts of getting a tattoo is “why?” I would try to ascertain as nearly as possible the following information: what is it that you are wanting to depict on your body? What is it about this particular thing or thought that you think is worth permanently marking your body to represent? Where are you planning to place this marking, and why have you chosen that particular location?

I have actually had this discussion with a few people. The typical answers I get are along these lines: because I think this particular image or phrase is cool. I like it and I want a tattoo anyway so that’s what I picked out. I’m putting it [here] because I [want/don’t want] certain people to see it.

Here’s a suggestion. Before you permanently mark your body with an image or phrase, make a picture/copy of that image and place it in several prominent places around your home, such as your bathroom mirror, on your refrigerator, etc. for an extended length of time. Do you still notice it after a few weeks or months? Do you still think it’s as cool as you did before? Has any of the coolness rubbed off with familiarity? If it has, imagine how much more that will be amplified once you’ve had the tattoo for several years and the colors have begun to fade, and age takes its toll on the skin upon which the tattoo resides. Will it still be as cool and captivating as it was when you first came up with the idea?

Another reason commonly given for getting a tattoo is as a memorial, to either another person or even pets. Sometimes the object of these types of tattoos is still living, and sometimes they have passed from this life. My question at this point is this: is getting a tattoo the best way you can think of to honor this particular person or pet? Perhaps you could dedicate yourself to serving them, if they are still living, or to championing causes they believed in, if they have passed on. In the case of a pet, take some pictures. Make an album. Hang them on your wall. All of these actions seem more reasonable than permanently marking your body in honor of an animal.

One thing I have brought up in these conversations is the permanence of the tattoo and the possibility that the person might regret it later. This idea is invariably met with dialogue along the lines of “well I’ve given this a lot of thought and I don’t think I’ll change my mind.” However, if this is the case, I wonder why one hears so many stories of those who have gotten tattoos in the past and now regret getting them. It’s a fact that people’s tastes generally change and evolve as they grow in age and experience. What seemed “cool” years ago now seems foolish. If you don’t believe me, just look at the people of my generation, who spent their teen years in the 1980’s wearing parachute pants and “big hair.” How many of them do you see doing the same thing today? (The “one hit wonder” bands doing reunion tours don’t count!)

Here are some more general thoughts/questions. As I stated in the beginning of this article, tattoos are very popular right now. Is the person considering getting a tattoo bowing to peer pressure? Do they have friends who have tattoos, and who are encouraging them to do the same? Are they looking for acceptance within certain peer groups?

However, it may be that getting tattoos has moved beyond the “fad” stage and is becoming inculcated as a part of our culture. How does this change things? What if it’s not just a fad anymore but simply a part of today’s culture? Does that change any of the answers to the questions that have been asked? How and why?

Tattoos are expensive, and many of the people I know with tattoos complain about a lack of money. Is a tattoo so important that you are willing to allocate the funds you have worked so hard for to purchase, especially when you could pay down some debt with that same money? Maybe you could invest that money into a retirement fund, or into your child’s education. Pay extra on your car note or house note, or do some needed maintenance on the same. It seems that there are much more productive uses for the money than “getting ink.”

There are additional considerations for those contemplating tattoos. People, fairly or unfairly (that’s a different discussion), judge others based on their appearance. Will getting a tattoo potentially hinder you in your chosen profession? Is it really a risk worth taking?

Serious people, those who tend to be the decision makers at various places of employment, do not generally seek attention except for serious purposes. People who draw attention to themselves via unconventional hairstyle, clothing, or otherwise altering their appearance (including excessive piercing and tattoos), or by their actions and mannerisms, are not generally considered to be serious people. Do you want to be considered serious by potential employers?

I have tried to ask questions about the practice of getting tattoos in order to get people considering doing so to think it through. Also, I am trying to give others who may know people considering getting tattoos some discussion points to review with them. At the end of the day, to put it bluntly, people are going to do what they want to do.

In closing, I would encourage us all to avoid making rash judgments based on outward appearances as much as possible, but to base our opinions on peoples’ words and actions.

I’d love to discuss these things with you. Any questions and comments that are in line with this page’s Commenting Policy will be published and responded to (to the best of my ability).

For more information on how I keep my worldview informed please go to Cross Roads Church.

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